Mango Pests and Integrated Control ( આંબાની જીવાતો અને સંકલિત નિયંત્રણ )

 Mango Pests and Integrated Control ( આંબાની જીવાતો અને સંકલિત નિયંત્રણ )

Infestation of different types of pests is seen in different stages of the crop in different ways during the year. About 15 pests have been reported in mango. Insect infestation has a detrimental effect on mango production and quality.

Mango Madhiyo:

The female lays her eggs in peacock stings and flower tissues. When the mango blossoms and new shoots begin to sprout, the midge and adult insects suck the sap from the blooms as well as the leaves. Damage to the dry part causes the flowers and small fruits to fall off. A honey-like substance flows from the body of the median. So that a black fungus grows on the leaf. Such fungi interfere with photosynthesis. So that has a sweet effect on mango production and quality. During the monsoon season, adult insects remain dormant and hide in the cracks of the bark. This pest is more prevalent in uncultivated orchards which are flooded.

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Mango Fruitflyies:

The infestation of this pest is more common when the fruits begin to ripen. The female lays her eggs by burrowing under the bark. Over time, the juice comes out of the hole. The caterpillar hatches from the egg. Such infested fruits rot and fall to the ground. Adult worms emerge from the fruit and transform into cocoons in the soil. Late ripening mango varieties are more prone to fruit fly infestation.

Mango Medh:

These pests damage the stems or branches. The female lays single eggs in cracks in tree trunks or near junctions of branches. The worm that hatches from the egg peels off and forms a spiral cone on the inside of the branch or trunk. Such cavities are seen moving from bottom to top on the trunk. A wooden brush protrudes from such a hole, indicating the presence of pests. Excessive damage can also lead to the death of a branch or an entire tree.

Mango paste:

The chicks hatch from the eggs in the ground and reach the branches of the tree trunks. Nightingales indirectly help the young to climb trees. Cubs and females suck sap on leaves, stings, fruit and twigs. Applying mealybugs on the fruit reduces the quality of the fruit.

Carrie's beak:

The female lays scattered eggs on the developing fruit or under the peel of the fruit which is about to fall. The worm that hatches from the egg enters the fruit embryo and eats it empty. The cochlea stage occurs in the throat. The adult beak comes out of the throat and into the ripe fruit pulp, so the fruit is no longer edible.

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Mango bite sharp:

The female insect lays eggs on withered leaves. The larvae hatched from the eggs initially enter the middle stalk of the dried leaves. The caterpillar then enters the kumli dunk and burrows from top to bottom. The leaves of the damaged sting wither. The nuisance is severe in newly constructed clauses. When the mango blooms, the inside of the Kumla inflorescence is eaten away and the bloom dries up.

Integrated pest control:

1. Maintain cleanliness in mango orchards as a priority and keep on spraying at the right time.

2. Frequent plowing or cultivating around trees in mango orchards during summer can destroy the eggs and fruit cocoons of sticky insects.

3. Destroy the infested fruits in the field in a timely manner.

4. For control of fruit flies, ethyl alcohol, methyl eugenol, DDVP in a mixture of 4: 4: 1 should be soaked in plywood block (5 cm) for 24 hours. Then place the fruit fly trap made from an empty bottle of mineral water or Navroji trap at the rate of 10–12 per hectare or plant black basil around the mango orchard and spray Dichlorvos 10 ml / 10 liters of water at intervals of 20 days.

5. Imidacloprid 12.5 SL for control of mango sting and stinging. The drug should be mixed in 2.4 ml per 10 liters of water and 5% solution of lemon seeds should be applied at the time of flowering when mango iscanut size or more infested.

6. During the monsoon, the beak of the middle adult and the gothla in its dormant state is filled with cracks in the bark on the trunk or branches. Spray thiodicarb (20 gm / 10 l of water) on tree branches and trunks in October.

7. New shoots sprout forth in September-October. New leaves are infested with thrips, bites, mango stalks and nodular flies. At this time spray Methyl-O-Dimethone 0.02% disinfectant.

8. During December-January, Methyl Parathion 2% is mixed in the soil around the ground to kill the sticky chicks. In addition to this, a 20 to 30 cm wide grid of grease or polythene seat one foot above the ground around the trunk of the tree can be used to prevent the chicks from climbing the tree.

9. Growing and destroying all the immature fruits that have fallen after about one and a half months after the fruit has been planted in the mango can reduce the infestation of gout.

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10. Apply acetamiprid 2 gm or thiomethoxam 1.5 gm or methyl-o-dimethon 10 ml surf powder mixed in 10 gm / 10 liters of water and spray on the infested mango.

11. If fresh stalks are seen coming out of the trunks or branches of infested trees, kill the stalks with a wire or close the hole with wet soil after putting a cotton ball soaked in DDVP medicine. Cutting off more infested branches.

12. Destroy the mango sting by cutting off the infested peacock branches along with the caterpillars.

13. For control of weevils, control can be achieved by destroying the weevil raft in Sedhapala or Ambawadia including the queen and if soil galleries are found on the tree trunks, remove it and make a solution of Chlorpyrifos 0.5% and spray the trunks and branches accordingly. New clausesBefore planting, mix 20 ml of chlorpyrifos in 10 liters of water and pour it all over the pit and then pour the same amount of mixture through the joints of the graft.

14. For control of nodule flies, collect and destroy the infested leaves and if there is more infestation, DDVP 3% 5 ml. Mix the drug in 10 liters of water and spray.

Mango Diseases and Integrated Control:

The technical information for identification, diagnosis and control of various diseases in mango crop is as follows.

Mango powder:

Symptoms of the disease: The disease usually occurs in the month of December-January when the mango blooms. The disease usually affects the mango blossoms but sometimes the symptoms appear on the back of the newly developed leaves. The symptoms of this disease are limited to the middle part of the leaf and such leaves are deformed and twisted. The main symptom of powdery mildew is white powdery mildew and small die (mango) and undeveloped fruits and blooms.
Outbreak: Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during the dry season and early morning dew. The prevalence of the disease is usually higher when the maximum temperature is 240 to 310 centigrade and humidity is 42 to 41%.
Control: Removal of diseased leaves and deformed inflorescences increases the effectiveness of fungicide spraying. As soon as the onset of the disease, the first spray of Vetable Sulfur (20 gm in 10 liters of water) followed by Dinocap (10 ml in 10 liters of water) for 15 days and the third spray of Tridemorph (5 ml in 10 liters of water) 15 days after the second spray effectively controls the disease. .

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Chronology of mango:

Symptoms: The disease starts with many small round or irregularly shaped brown dots on the leaf. In humid environments, these spots develop and dry out and the dead part between the spots disappears, making the leaf look oval. When the leaf stalks become diseased they turn gray or black causing the whole leaf to dry out. Black, long dying areas are found on the mango twigs, after which the twigs dry out.
The most devastating stage of the disease is when the mango blossoms and its stems dry out due to the disease, which has a detrimental effect on the production. In favorable conditions, the disease causes the peacock and its stems to turn black. A large number of mangoes die in one to two weeks.
Spread of the disease: Diseased leaves, twigs and mango blossoms produce seeds of numerous pathogenic fungi. When the mango blossoms are in bloom, if the ambient temperature is 200 centigrade and with rain, fog or excessive dew, the spread of the disease becomes faster and the severity of the disease increases.
Control: Collect and destroy diseased branches, leaves, fruits, trees as well as from the garden. The disease is effectively controlled by spraying copper oxychloride (20 g in 10 liters of water) or carbendazim (5 g in 10 liters of water) or thiophenate methyl (5 g in 10 liters of water) soaking the whole plant.

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